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# 半导体翻译| 文忠翻译

2.5  THE HALL EFFECT AND HALL DEVICES

An important phenomenon that we can comfortably explain using the "electron as a particle" concept is the Hall effect, which is illustrated in Figure 2.16. When we apply a magnetic field in a perpendicular direction to the applied field (which is driving the current), we find there is a transverse field in the sample that is perpendicular to the direction of both the applied field Ex and the magnetic field Bz, that is, in the y direction. Putting a voltmeter across the sample, as in Figure 2.16, gives a voltage reading VH. The applied field Ex drives a current Jx in the sample. The electrons move in the -x direction, with a drift velocity vdxBecause of the magnetic field, there is  a force (called the Lorentz force) acting on each electron and given by Fy = -evdxBz. The direction

of this Lorentz force is the -y direction, which we can show by applying the cork-screw rule, because, in vector notation, the force F acting on a charge q moving with a velocity v in a magnetic field B is given through the vector product

F= qv× B                                  [2.29]   Lorentz force

All moving charges experience the Lorentz force in Equation 2.29 as shown schematically in Figure 2.17. In our example of a metal in Figure 2.16, this Lorentz force is the -y direction, so it pushes the electrons downward, as a result of which there is a negative charge accumulation near the bottom of the sample and a positive charge near the top of the sample, due to exposed metal ions (e.g., Cu+).

F = qv×B                             [2.29]  洛伦兹力

如图2.17所示，所有移动的电荷都受到式（2.29）的洛伦兹力作用。在我们图2.16所示的一个金属例子中，该洛伦兹力为-y方向，将推电子向下偏转。因此在样品的底部会有负电荷的积累，而在上部由于留下金属离子（如Cu+）而有正电荷的积累。  